CLENBUTEROL

The clenbuterol is an active substance beta-agonist which is at the origin of usage vétérinaire (Ventipulmin).
It is an anti-catabolic non-hormonal belonging to the list I.
Prescribed originally for the affections broncho-pulmonary spastic in the horse racing. The mechanism of action is the stimulation of the receptors Beta2-adrenergic. Its action time is very short and its duration of action is significantly longer than the sympathomimetic drugs, while having a dosage lower.

Desired effects clenbuterol

Fat mass loss important anti-catabolic on the total dry weight that is to gain weight while drying.
Capacity of the ventilation due to the effect of broncho-dilator
Increased blood flow and therefore congestion muscle
The gains are quite variable depending on the assay used, which typically varies from 0.04 to 0.2 mg per day. To know that biological receptors will saturate after a few weeks and make ineffective the pursuit of the cure. However, it is possible to counteract this saturation by taking taurine.

Side effects clenbuterol

Tremors, sudations important, headache, tachycardia, hyperthermia, insomnia, mood change, etc, The majority of these symptoms disappear once the body adjusts to the product (that is to say in a few days).

clenbuterol In man

This product is very dangerous for Human in case of overdose. The association of clenbuterol alcohol and other drugs can also have serious consequences on the body. The heart rate speeds up, and thermogenesis is observed rapidly after taking.
Cramps on striated muscles, headache, insomnia, mood disorders, tremors, etc. - These side effects are quasi-systematic. It is to be noted that the heart is a striated muscle, a cramp would cause a cardiac arrest.

Agriculture/livestock clenbuterol

This drug has also been used (or is still illegally in Europe for a few years) as an additive Beta-agonist by farmers to produce meat that is leaner and more protéinée4.
As with all Beta-agonist, this molecule degrades the organoleptic qualities of the meat.
Detection : A single hair of cattle, goat, sheep, etc have to do now is to detect (illegal in Europe and some other countries)5, but a sample of urine6 or plasma sanguin7 can also be used.
Biomarkers indirects8 have also been developed for the fight against the use of illégal9 of these products. Among other means ; anomalies, characteristics of the form of the thymus - is easy to detect in the slaughterhouse - can also indicate the illegal use of Clenbuterol combined with other molecules, even if it is no longer detectable in the blood plasma 10.

Sport (doping) clenbuterol

The effects sought by athletes who use clenbuterol are two side effects of this product : "its remarkable property to burn the fat" and its anabolic effect. Clenbuterol has started to be used by athletes as a replacement for anabolic hormone, which the detection was more efficient in the 1980s. Bodybuilders have made use of it from 1988 Angleterre11.
The consumption of clenbuterol is become detectable anti-doping controls at the beginning of the year 1992. Several athletes have been tested positive during this year of olympic : weightlifters british Andrew Davies and Andrew Saxton, athletes German Katrin Krabbe and Grit Breuer, controlled, shortly before the olympic Games, the hammer thrower american Jud Logan, the whistleblower-weight american Bonnie Dasse, both positive during the Games. The German Manuela Derr confess that its use in a letter to his fédération12.
Clenbuterol has been used by the Polish Adam Seroczynski during the test of two-seater kayak in the 2008 olympics in Beijing, where he was ranked quatrième13.
It has also been used by the Moroccan Jamal Chatbi before the final of the 3,000 m steeplechase during the world athletics championships in Berlin in 2009. Karol Beck-tennis champion, was tested positive for this substance in 2005 (two years suspension), as well as Tong Wen, olympic champion in judo in 2008.
Several cyclists have tested positive to this product. In April 2010, the Chinese Li Fuyu of team Radioshack has been tested positive for this produit14,15.
The pongiste German Dimitrij Ovtcharov (n°13 in the world) has tested positive for the Clenbuterol on August 23, 2010 in the aftermath of the China Open. He thinks he was the victim of a foodborne illness by eating meat during this competition.[ref. needed]
Traces of clenbuterol were detected in the samples provided by Alberto Contador, winner of the race, the outcome of the audits carried out during the second rest day of the 2010 Tour de France. He has advanced the thesis of the contamination of food for défendre16,17. On February 6, 2012, the Court of arbitration for sport was found guilty Alberto Contador, stripping it of its title of winner of the 2010 Tour de France, who will return to Andy Schleck.
On June 9, 2011, the mexican Federation (Femexfut) announced that five of its international, who participated at the Gold Cup in the United States came to be suspended for doping. The players involved are goalkeeper Guillermo Ochoa (Club America), defenders Francisco Rodriguez (PSV Eindhoven) and Edgar Duenas (Toluca), as well as midfielders Antonio Naelson (Toluca) and Christian Bermudez (CF Atlante). All have been tested positive to the banned substance known as clenbuterol, said the secretary-general of the Femexfut, Decio de Maria. Citing a problem in more food, and it's unfortunate that sports and voluntary, the mexican federation has cleared its international after further analysis, this time negative, in the United States

Notes and references clenbuterol

  1. Molar mass calculated fromthe Atomic weights of the elements 2007 [archive] on www.chem.qmul.ac.uk.
  2. Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 22, Pg. 869, 1972.
  3. (en) " Clenbuterol " on ChemIDplus
  4. Regiart M, Fernández-Baldo MA, Spotorno VG, Bertolino FA, Raba J, Ultra-sensitive microfluidic immunosensor for determination of clenbuterol in bovine hair samples using electrodeposited gold nanoparticles and magnetic micro particles as bio-affinity platform ; Biosens Bioelectron. 2012 Aug 17. doi:pii: S0956-5663(12)00544-1. 10.1016/j. bios.2012.08.020. PMID:22975092
  5. XD, Wu YL, Yang HJ, Yang T. Simultaneous determination of 10 β(2)-agonists in swine urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a reversed dispersive solid phase extraction sorbent ; J Chromatogr A. 2012 Oct 19;1260:25-32. doi: 10.1016/j. chroma.2012.08.066. Epub 2012 Aug 27. PMID: 22959774
  6. Chang H, Li J, Li J, Guan X, Sun F, Qian Z, Bi K, Fan G., Simultaneous determination of amlodipine and bisoprolol in rat plasma by a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method and its application in pharmacokinetic study , J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012 Dec;71:104-10. doi: 10.1016/j. jpba.2012.08.012. Epub 2012 Aug 19. PMID: 22947502
  7. Vascellari M, Pozza G, Poppi L, Capello K, 'angeletti R, Ravarotto L, Andrighetto I, Mutinelli F, Evaluation of indirect biomarkers for detecting corticosteroids used as illegal growth promoters in beef cattle ; Vet Rec. 2008 Aug 2; 163(5):147-51.
  8. Kuiper HA, Noordam MY, van Dooren-Flipsen MM, Schilt R, Roos AH, Illegal use of beta-adrenergic agonists: European Community , J Anim Sci. 1998 Jan; 76(1):195-207.
  9. Vascellari M, Katia C, Annalisa S, Giancarlo B, Letizia M, Roberto S, Giandomenico P, Franco M., Evaluation of thymus morphology and serum cortisol concentration as indirect biomarkers to detect low-dose dexamethasone illegal treatment in beef cattle ; BMC Vet Res. 2012 Aug 3;8:129. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-129 (summary [archive])
  10. de Mondenard 2004, p. 244
  11. de Mondenard 2004, p. 238-239
  12. http://www.olympic.org/fr/cio?articlenewsgroup=-1&currentarticlespageipp=50&currentarticlespage=5&articleid=53699 [archive]
  13. http://www.as.com/ciclismo/articulo/chino-li-fuyo-radioshack-da/dasclm/20100801dasdascic_1/Tes [archive]
  14. http://www.letour2010.net/velo-radioshack-li-fuyo-controle-positif [archive]
  15. Doping : Control "abnormal" Contador ! [archive], Velochrono.fr September 30, 2010
  16. Contador positive four times ? [archive] on lequipe.fr, 8 February 2011. Accessed 10 February 2011